1. Wood Glues
Wood glue is an adhesive which, as the name implies, is used primarily to adhere or seal wood. They are made with a water base and generally clean up with ease. Depending on where the area you are working is located, such as outdoors or in a high humidity area, you will want to get a water resistant wood glue. They are quite easy to use with and are versatile enough to work with all types of wood. Once the bond has dried and sealed, it will remain strong for quite some time.
2. Super Glues
Super glues are one of the most versatile glues as far as materials they can adhere to. Ceramics, plastics, wood, glass, and just about anything else will stick together when super glue is applied. Contrary to many other types of adhesive, the less super glue you apply during a job, the better it will work. A thin layer is enough to firmly hold most substances together through moderate tension and agitation. Nonetheless, be careful since super glue dries almost instantly and can glue skin to almost anything. If you ever find yourself stuck, nail polish remover does a good job dissolving the super glue.
3. Two-Part Epoxies
Two-part epoxies are among the strongest adhesives available for purchase. Generally, they come with each part in its own tube or bottle, and you mix them together before applying it to the surface you need. A chemical reaction occurs when the two halves are combined that results in a very strong bond that can be used for woods, plastics, and is exceptionally good at bonding metals. These adhesives, especially, emit very strong fumes, so make sure to keep the area you're working in is ventilated.
4. Silicone Caulking
Silicone caulking is generally used more for its sealing properties rather than as an adhesive, but it serves both roles well, especially when used in conjunction with another, stronger sealant. It's completely waterproof, so silicone caulking is usually used when things such as windows need to be sealed. It's not very strong, so it would be better to choose another adhesive for jobs that require a more solid hold.
Selected from: https://www.doityourself.com/stry/4-alternatives-to-sealant-adhesive